Advanced powders appliance
Material property modifiers
Small additives of advanced powders increase the characteristics of ultrastrong high-density materials, for example (W-Ni-Fe);
special composite materials, for example (magnetic – Nd-Fe-B, superconductors – Ba-Cu-O, Ba-Fe-O);
improve the mechanical properties of rubbers and polymers.
One of the iron-based nanopowder modifications:
The powder consists of – Fe2O3 with an admixture of other ferrous oxides modifications in an amount not exceeding 5% by the mass.
The length of needle crystals is tenths of micron, and the diameter is a hundredths of micron. Powder can find application in the materials manufacturing technology for magnetic recording.
Oils and liquid fuels additives
“Garant-M” – metal-plating modifier of surface friction, which is used for improving the technical and operational properties of internal combustion engines without disassembling. The mixture is used as an additive to engine oils, it is a concentrate available by combining advanced powders (AP) of copper, engine oil and special components.
The effect of the additive is to create on the surface of friction parts (for example, bearing – shaft cylinder-piston, etc.) the self-regulating layer, which ensures their recovery and operation in the “no wear” mode — advanced disperse metal particles pass freely through the filters and eliminate prehension of the friction members.
The use of “Garant-M” mixture allows:
- to increase the life of the engine in 1.5-2 times;
- to restore compression in engine cylinders up to 20% and provide itspreservation under the condition of regular use;
- to reduce oil consumption by 15-20%, fuel to 5%;
- to reduce smokiness by 1.4 – 1.6 times;
- to reduce toxicity of exhaust fumes by 20-30%;
- to simplify motor starting and reduce the engine noise.
The mixture has passed operational examinations on cars AZLK, VAZ, UAZ, ZIL, KAMAZ, MAZ, LiAZ, Ikarus, and BelAZ with carrying capacity from 27 to 180 tons. The most effective use of additives is on heavy vehicles.
The products are certified in the Tomsk Center for Standardization, Metrology and Certification, as well as in the Petroleum Product Certification Authority, which is used in the Russian transport and road complex at the Research Institute of the Ministry of Transport of Russia.
Patent of the Russian Federation: № 2054030
Sintering activator of metallic and composite materials containing in their composition one of the elements (iron, nickel, tungsten, aluminum) or any of their compositions, as well as ceramic materials based on oxides and nitrides of aluminum, titanium, zirconium.
A small addition to the sintered charge of the activator from 0.1 to 5 % of mass allows:
- to reduce the requirements to the purity of the feedstock and the accuracy of maintaining the parameters of the sintering process;
- to reduce sintering temperature;
- to improve the physical and mechanical characteristics of materials and products;
The activator is an advanced powder made of aluminum with alloying additives.
The main characteristics of the activator:
|shape of particles||spherical|
|the number-average particle size, nm||100 – 300|
|the specific surface area, м2/g||4 – 15|
|the content of fixed oxygen, mass %||not more than 5|
|the content Al, mass %||92-95|
|alloying additives, mass %||3|
Conditions of practical application: the insertion of the activator into the charge should exclude the use of water!
- Activated sintering of ceramics from ZrO2, Al2O3 and SiO2.
- Activated sintering of heavy alloy W-Ni-Fe.
- Production of sintered tungsten alloy — .aluminum
Magnetic powder for fingerprinting
Powder on the basis of iron of black color, possessing magnetic and “displaying” properties.
Papillary lines in the tracks left on the surfaces of many materials are clearly identified and well copied. The results of testing the effectiveness of the powder are given in chart
|Material||1-24 hour||72 hour||7 days||1 month|
|Paper with a glossy surface||+|
|The painted surface||+||+||+||+|
+ – papillary lines are clear
Biologically active mixtures based on AP
Due to their small size advanced dispersed powders(diameter ~ 0.1 μm) represents significant interest for medicine.
The use of AP as a paste or ointment can heal gunshot wounds and burns for shorter periods without the formation of a scar after treatment.
APs are advanced carriers of drugs with their subsequent concentration by a magnetic field. Due to this effect, lower doses of drugs and faster treatment can be used.
The use of AP of tantalum makes it possible to have a high-quality radiopaque substance for the diagnosis of respiratory organs and other internal organs. Tantalum is absolutely non-toxic and compatible with tissues. Considering that tantalum has a nuclear charge of 73 (tungsten 74), small amounts of NP are required to obtain a contrasting image of the organ.
Advanced-powders can also be used to block and suppress malignant tumors. At the same time, magnetic AP and the hyperthermia method can be used to block tumors, and for chemotheray it can be used platinum and its mixtures . In the latter case, it is possible not to use toxic dichlorodiamine platinum.
Tests of medications with AP were conducted at the Tomsk State Medical University, in the Oncology Research Institute (Tomsk), at the Department of Military Field Surgery of the Tomsk Military Medical Institute and at agricultural enterprises.
Patent of the Russian Federation №.2123329
AP additives in pyrotechnic mixtures and in composite propellant.
Fist of all, reducing the particle size of the powders leads to increasing of the specific surface area, which directly determines the chemical activity of the AP, including their combustion. As a result of transferring of combustibles to the AP condition, their burning speed in pyrotechnic mixtures and composite propellant increases. Simultaneously, due to the high dispersity, the two-phase energy losses are reduced during combustion, and the pulse increases. According to the experts conclusion from testing centers in China Lake (USA) and Saint-Louis (France), APs are highly recommended for use in quick-burning mixtures, in particular, for use in launching of missile booster.
If for conventional aluminum powders the combustion speed in the model fuel is 1-2 inches per second, then after replacing conventional aluminum with an AP, the speed increases to 10 inches per second. At the model mixtures of AP aluminum with oxidizers, an even faster rate is achieved.
The peculiarity of mixtures and fuels with AP is the preservation of their burning ability where their aluminum content is 60% by mass and more.
The use of AP aluminum enables the development of environmentally friendly composite propellant, in which water is used as an oxidizer, and the product of combustion is hydrogen.
Patent of the Russian Federation №. 2055698
Advanced powder-spent sorbent for water-soluble admixture of heavy metals
A sorbent based on advanced powders (AP) of aluminum and iron that removes soluble admixtures of heavy metals from water: Zn2 +, Fe2 + (Fe3 +), Ni2 +, Cd2 +, Pb2 + and others, as well as admixture of radioactive elements: Sr90, Th, U, Pu and others . In the process of interaction of advanced powders with water, the formation of hydroxides with a loose structure and an effective surface is taking place, which ensures the capture and trapping of soluble admixture due to the following processes: adsorption, coprecipitation, absorption, occlusion, and co-crystallization. Simultaneously with the formation of hydroxides on the surface of the particles, hydrogen is released in the form of bubbles, which raise the particles to the surface. Thereby, the sorbent particles permeate through a layer of water and mix with water.
Advantages: the sorbent can be used for cleaning, as for small volumes of water, and for cleaning of natural reservoirs without disturbance of their vital activity. The sorbent can be used in the form of a powder or granules. The use of the sorbent does not require the special mixing of water. Admixtures of heavy metals and radionuclides captured by sorbents, after complete interaction of aluminum and iron with water it’s settle to the bottom and are not carried away along with the streams of water. In the case of water purification in tanks, a sediment containing admixture of heavy metals and radionuclides is removed by filtration, sedimentation or other known methods.
Sorbent tests were carried out at the High Voltage Research Institute and at the Nuclear Physics Research Institute at the Tomsk Polytechnic University. It is supplied in small batches for research.
Patents of the Russian Federation №2013380 and №2102337
Type of powders
|Metals||Al, Ag, Cu, Fe, Ni, W, Mo, Zn, In, Sn, Ti and their compounds|
|Alloys||NiCr NiTi and etc.|
|Oxides||Аl2O3, TiO2, ZnO|
Advanced powders properties
Powders that are produced by the suggested technology:
- Particles are spherical and nanostructured in volume
- They havean increased chemical activity when threshold temperatures are reached
- Sintered in a self-propagating process at extremely low temperatures
- Easily form intermetallic compounds
- Have a reduced electron work function
- have excess energy.
General characteristics of powders
|Shape of particles||Spherical or with slightly pronounced faceting|
|Particle size, nm||30-500|
|Size of structural fragments, nm||10-30|
|Specific surface area, m2/g||2-50|
|Particle -size distribution||normal – logarithmic|